An Insight Into the Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development Chart. Example:" Daddy says it is wrong to speed on the freeway!" Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development are an adaptation of the Piaget Stages.According to the theory, moral reasoning develops in six stages, each more adequate at responding to moral dilemmas than the one before. Stage 2: Instrumental Orientation The first transition that takes place is from being selfish to being responsible. Three Moral Types and Orientation Toward Stakeholder Groups: Customers and the Local Community Type of Management Orientation Toward Customer Stakeholders Immoral Management Stage 1: Punishment-Obedience Orientation Lawrence Kohlberg: "Physical consequences of an action determine its goodness or badness regardless of the human meaning or value of these consequences. The result is a somewhat short-sighted orientation … The preconventional level of moral development coincides approximately with the preschool period of life and with Piaget’s preoperational period of thinking. Moral values reside in performing the right role, in maintaining the conventional order and expectancies of others as a value in its own right. Kohlberg suggested that people move through these stages in a fixed order, and that moral understanding is linked to cognitive development.The three levels of moral reasoning include preconventional, conventional, and postconventional. Examples of applied moral dilemmas. The physical consequences of action determine its goodness or badness regardless of the human meaning or value of these consequences. Stage 4: Law and Order Orientation Lawrence Kohlberg: "Right behavior consists in doing one's duty, showing respect for authority and maintaining the given social order for its own sake." 2. Stage 1: Obedience-and-Punishment Orientation. Obedience and punishment orientation (How can I avoid punishment?) A quantitative measure of adult moral orientation, based on the theoretical frameworks of Kohlberg and Gilligan, was developed to measure preference for "justice" or "care"-oriented moral thinking. In other words, moral behavior responds to a set of customs established by a group of individuals, while ethical behavior is defined by the character of an individual. Gilligan’s primary focus was the moral development of young women. Top 10 Moral Dilemmas Listverse Writers Thankfully most of us do not come across dire situations that present a moral dilemma, but it is always a very interesting exercise to consider a dilemma and our reaction to it. Assessment of moral competence depends on the definition and scope of moral competence. Gilligan’s interest in moral development was deeply affected by her interviews with young women contemplating abortions in the 1970s. According to Kohlberg, moral development occurs at the preconventional, conventional and postconventional stages. Kohlberg’s model for moral development and moral reasoning, while similar to Piaget’s, is more complex. They could not, for example, move from an orientation of selfishness to the law and order stage without passing through the good boy/girl stage. Consider the following moral dilemma: Mr. Heinz's wife is dying. A person in this stage "orients to society as a system of fixed rule, law and authority with the prospect of any deviation from rules as leading to social chaos." Stage 6 : Universal Ethical Principles Orientation. Stage Motivator; 1: Obedience and punishment orientation. That is, they could not "jump" stages. Relative social relationship with adults: In the natural authority relationship between adults and children, power is handed down from above. Avoidance of punishment and unquestioning deference to power are values in their own right, not in terms of respect for an underlying moral order supported by punishment and authority (the latter is stage 4). Level 1: Preconventional Punishment-Obedience orientation. Stage 1: The punishment and obedience orientation. The conventional level Children, or adults, at this level take society's expectations and laws into consideration when making a decision about a moral dilemma. Examples of Kohlberg's six stages of moraldevelopment (Woolfolk, 1993) . Kohlberg's theory proposes that there are three levels of moral development, with each level split into two stages. Kohlberg Theory of Moral Development is one of the most important theories in the field of human psychology. Within Gilligan’s theoretical framework for moral development in females, she provides a sequence of three levels. Orientation to approval, to pleasing and helping others. Moral psychology eventually came to refer more broadly to various topics at the intersection of ethics, psychology, and philosophy of mind. Often referred to as the "good boy-good girl" orientation, the stage of the interpersonal relationship of moral development is focused on living up to social expectations and roles. Heinz is the name of the titular character of this case study on moral dilemma. Level A (Pre-moral or Pre-Conventional Stages) - Judge the morality of an action by its direct consequences. Avoidance of punishment and unquestioning deference to power are valued in their own right, not in terms of respect for an underlying moral order supported by punishment and authority." Such obedience is simply to avoid punishment . There isone drug that will save her life but it is very expensive. For example, if it is accepted that"all human beings are equal"as a moral principle, it is not possible to accept another principle that says that"women are inferior to men and as such should obey them". The judgment may become innate and may even violate the laws and rules as the person becomes attached to his own principles of justice. Level II: Conventional/Role Conformity Moral values reside in performing the right role, in maintaining the conventional order and expectancies of others as a value in its own right. To do this, Kohlberg established the Moral Judgement Interview in his original 1958 dissertation. The three levels that Kohlberg described are Level 1: Pre-Conventional morality, Level 2: Conventional Morality, and Level 3: Post-Conventional morality. In the following table, the differences between ethics and morality are specified: You may also like These examples of moral norms . Kohlberg's stages of moral development is a theory that was put forth by a psychologist of the same name and focused on how the different stages of moral behavior come to be. For example, an action is perceived as morally wrong because the perpetrator is punished; the worse the punishment for the act is, the more “bad” the act is perceived to be. Naive egalitarianism,orientation to exchange and reciprocity. Heinz dilemma is an example of ethical dilemma, and it reflects a similar situation of choosing between the devil and the deep sea. Fear of punishment or respect for authority. Stage 3: Good-boy/good-girl orientation. Elementary school examples; A fourth grade girl refrains from running in the hallway to avoid theconsequences involved in breaking that school's rule. During the roughly 45 minute tape recorded semi-structured interview, the interviewer uses moral dilemmas to determine which stage of moral reasoning a person uses. Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development constitute an adaptation of a psychological theory originally conceived by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget. There is an emphasis on conformity , being "nice," and consideration of how choices influence relationships. There is one drug that will save her life but it is very expensive. Stage 1: Obedience-and-punishment orientation: Stage 1 focuses on the child’s desire to obey rules and avoid being punished. Examples of moral decisions can range from large quandaries like whether to legalize abortion or go to war, through to everyday decisions like keeping money found in the street or using a neighbor's Wi-Fi without them knowing. They could only come to a comprehension of a moral rationale one stage above their own. The relative powerlessness of young children, coupled with childhood egocentrism feeds into a heteronomous moral orientation. Children and some adults. Stage 1 focuses on the child’s desire to obey rules and avoid being punished. Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1983) was an American Self-interest orientation (What's in it for me?) Moral principles must be consistent with one another; this means that in fulfilling the demands of one moral principle, one should not attempt against another. For example, an action is perceived as morally wrong because the perpetrator is punished; the worse the punishment for the act is, the more “bad” the act is perceived to be. Moral psychology is a field of study in both philosophy and psychology.Historically, the term "moral psychology" was used relatively narrowly to refer to the study of moral development. Heteronomous Moral Reasoning: Factor 2 2. In the article that follows, we will look at how this behavior pattern develops in humans. Stage 1: Obedience and punishment orientation; Stage 2: Self-interest orientation; 2. 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