Learn how and when to remove this template message, Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Miranda, Salvador. [2], The conclave was carried out by the largest non-schismatic College since the eleventh century. His accomplishments as pope included the construction of the Sistine Chapel and the creation of the Vatican Archives. He also refounded, enriched and enlarged the Vatican Library. Sixtus IV (sĬk´stəs), 1414–84, pope (1471–84), an Italian named Francesco della Rovere (b. near Savona); successor of Paul II. Pope Sixtus IV (July 21, 1414 – August 12, 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 1471 to 1484. 1. Upon his return to the city Count Riario joined his wife and held the Castel until persuaded to withdraw from the city with payment of 4000 ducats.[3]. [18] Arguably the "ideology of conquest" expounded in those texts became the means by which commerce and conversion were facilitated.[19]. He is known for beginning construction of the Sistine Chapel. Alexander VI, corrupt, wordly, and ambitious pope (1492–1503), whose neglect of the spiritual inheritance of the church contributed to the development of the Protestant Reformation. Sixtus IV later studied philosophy and theology at the University of Pavia, and lectured at Padua, Bologna, Pavia, Siena, and Florence. Sergio e Bacco, bishop of Agrigento. [1], Francesco was born to a family of modest means from Liguria, Italy, the son of Leonardo della Rovere and Luchina Monleoni. However, after the conquest of Smyrna, the fleet disbanded. In the context of the Counter-Reformation, this pope moderated the Inquisition in Italy. Named bishop of Savona, Italy, in 1467 by Pope Paul II, he was made cardinal in 1473 by Pope Sixtus IV, whom he succeeded. While Count Girolamo Riario was away besieging a Colonna stronghold, his palace was sacked and his wife fled to the Castel S. Angelo. In 1475 his successor Pope Sixtus IV founded the Palatine Library. In November 1476, Isabel and Fernando ordered an investigation into rights of conquest in the Canary Islands, and in the spring of 1478, they sent Juan Rejon with sixty soldiers and thirty cavalry to the Grand Canary, where the natives retreated inland. [17], As a temporal prince who constructed stout fortresses in the Papal States, he encouraged the Venetians to attack Ferrara, which he wished to obtain for another nephew. [2] However, the two factions of cardinals differed over whether the church ought to prioritize the continuation of the Italian League or should prioritize papal power (especially vis-a-vis Naples) over the preservation of the peace. He was made general of his order, the Franciscans, in 1464 and became (1467) a cardinal. The dedicatory inscription in the fresco by Melozzo da Forlì in the Vatican Palace records: "You gave your city temples, streets, squares, fortifications, bridges and restored the Acqua Vergine as far as the Trevi..." In addition to restoring the aqueduct that provided Rome an alternative to the river water, which had made the city famously unhealthy, he restored or rebuilt over 30 of Rome's dilapidated churches such as San Vitale (1475) and Santa Maria del Popolo, and he added seven new ones. As pope he is regarded as the successor of Saint Peter. 150–196. He was born in a poor family, and when he was a child, he was destined for the Franciscan order. Upon being elected Pope, Della Rovere adopted the name Sixtus, which had not been used since the 5th century. [13] The English churchman and Protestant polemicist John Bale, writing a century later, attributed to Sixtus "the authorisation to practice sodomy during periods of warm weather" to the "Cardinal of Santa Lucia". Those concessions were confirmed by Sixtus in his own bull, Aeterni regis, of 21 June 1481. Each figure incorporates the oak tree ("rovere" in Italian), symbol of Sixtus IV. Sixtus IV. Nereo ed Achilleo, archbishop of Conza, Title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, bishop of Parma, Deacon of Ss. Sixtus was expected to be a reformer, but he was too much embroiled in political difficulties. His election was manipulated by Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere (later Pope Julius II), … He decreed that the people should chant with the priest during the Sanctus at the Holy Communion section of the Catholic Mass.. Sixtus IV died on 12 August 1484 and was succeeded by Innocent VIII. [3], In 1464, Della Rovere was elected Minister General of the Franciscan order at the age of 50. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, This page was last edited on 1 October 2020, at 19:27. Pope Sixtus IV (Latin: Xystus Quartus; 21 July 1414 - 12 August 1484), originally Francesco della Rovere, was an Italian priest of the Roman Catholic Church and the 213th Pope from 1471 until his death in 1484.. Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 August 1471 to his death. [16] Sixtus consented under political pressure from Ferdinand of Aragon,[16] who threatened to withhold military support from his kingdom of Sicily. Innocent VIII, pope from 1484 to 1492. Sixtus IV sought to strengthen his position by surrounding himself with relatives and friends. [20] The ecclesiastical penalties were directed towards those who were enslaving the recent converts.[21]. Pope Sixtus IV died the following evening - 12 August. [6] Some fruitless attempts were made towards unification with the Greek Church. Pope Sixtus IV : biography 21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484 The English theologian John Bale attributed to Sixtus "the authorisation to practice sodomy during periods of warm weather" to the Cardinal of Santa Lucia.Giovanni Lydus, Analecta in librum Nicolai de Clemangiis, De corrupto Ecclesiae statu. In order to prevent the selection of Cardinal Barbo, on the evening before the election, after the cardinals retired for the night, the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, nephew of the late Pope, and Cardinal Borgia, the Vice-Chancellor, visited a number of cardinals and secured their votes with the promise of various benefices. He felt unwell that evening and was forced to cancel a meeting he was to hold with his cardinals the following morning. Pope Sixtus IV paid a formal visit to the newly restored building on 1 May 1482, and it may be that Giuliano was already in residence then. However, Pietro died prematurely in 1474, and his role passed to Giuliano Della Rovere. The envoy of the Medici family summed up Sixtus' reign in the announcement to his master 'Today at 5 o'clock His Holiness Sixtus IV departed this life-may God forgive him!' The secular fortunes of the Della Rovere family began when Sixtus invested his nephew Giovanni with the lordship of Senigallia and arranged his marriage to the daughter of Federico III da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino; from that union came a line of Della Rovere dukes of Urbino that lasted until the line expired, in 1631. 2014, "Sisto IV (1414-1484)", Palazzo-Medici Riccardi. "Sede Vacant August 12, 1484—August 29, 1484", California State University, Northridge, De aliquis mutationibus in normis de electione Romani Pontificis, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1484_papal_conclave&oldid=981346519, Articles needing additional references from June 2015, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, administrator of Valencia, Bishop of Ostia e Velletri, bishop of Bologna, administrator of Avignon, Bishop of Palestrina, patriarch of Aquileia, Title of S. Maria in Trastevere, archbishop of Milan, Title of Ss. The overall program of the panels, their beauty, complex symbolism, classical references and their relative arrangement are compelling and comprehensive illustrations of the Renaissance worldview. Sixtus V created 33 cardinals in eight consistories during his reign, which included his grandnephew Alessandro Peretti di Montalto and his future successor Ippolito Aldobrandini who would later become Pope Clement VIII. Vol. [8] Six of the thirty-four cardinals that he created were his nephews.[9]. Before his papal election, Cardinal della Rovere was renowned for his unworldliness and had written learned treatises, including On the Blood of Christ and On the Power of God. None of them actually states how he died. Pope. According to the later published chronicle of the Italian historian Stefano Infessura, Diary of the City of Rome, Sixtus was a "lover of boys and sodomites", awarding benefices and bishoprics in return for sexual favours and nominating a number of young men as cardinals, some of whom were celebrated for their good looks. Pope Sixtus is portrayed by Raul Bova in the second season, and John Lynch in the third season of the TV series Medici: Masters of Florence. Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484. "Variations of Popery", Samuel Edgar D.D. The conclave which assembled on the death of Paul II elected him pope, and he ascended the chair of St. Peter as Sixtus IV. The Sistine Chapel was sponsored by Sixtus IV, as was the Ponte Sisto,[7] the Sistine Bridge (the first new bridge across the Tiber since Antiquity) and the building of Via Sistina (later named Borgo Sant'Angelo), a road leading from Castel Sant'Angelo to Saint Peter. [10][11][12] However, Infessura had partisan allegiances to the Colonna and so is not considered to be always reliable or impartial. He also lined the coffers of the state by unscrupulously selling high offices and privileges.[6]. Sixtus IV (FRANCESCO DELLA ROVERE), POPE, b. near Abisola, July 21, 1414; d. August 12, 1484. Successor: Sixtus IV: Orders; Created cardinal: 1 July 1440 by Eugene IV: Personal details; Birth name: Pietro Barbo: Born: 23 February 1417 Venice, Republic of Venice: Died: 26 July 1471 (aged 54) Rome, Papal States: Previous post: Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria Nuova (1440–1451) Apostolic Administrator of Cervia (1440–1451) The two papal bulls issued by Pope Nicholas V, Dum Diversas of 1452 and Romanus Pontifex of 1455, had effectively given the Portuguese the rights to acquire slaves along the African Coast by force or trade. He was noted for his nepotism and was personally involved in the infamous Pazzi conspiracy. Cardinal di Montalto was elected pope in 1585; and he chose the name Sixtus V. During the reign of Sixtus V, the dome of St Peter's Basilica was completed;. For the remainder of his pontificate, Sixtus turned to temporal issues and dynastic considerations. Posthumous style. Sixtus was expected to be a reformer, but he was too much embroiled in political difficulties. His accomplishments as pope included building the Sixtus IV, pope from 1471 to 1484 who effectively made the papacy an Italian principality. His accomplishments as Pope included the establishment of the Sistine Chapel; the group of artists that he brought together introduced the Early Renaissance into Rome with the first masterpiece of the city's new artistic age, the Vatican Archives. He succeeded Pope Alexander I and was in turn succeeded by Pope Telesphorus.His feast is celebrated on 6 April. [3] For refusing to desist from the very hostilities that he himself had instigated and for being a dangerous rival to Della Rovere dynastic ambitions in the Marche, Sixtus placed Venice under interdict in 1483. Pope Sixtus's tomb was destroyed in the Sack of Rome in 1527. Sixtus IV: Successor: Alexander VI: Orders; Ordination: c. 1450: Consecration: 28 January 1467: Created cardinal: 7 May 1473 by Sixtus IV: Personal details; Birth name: Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo) Born: 1432 Genoa, Republic of Genoa: Died: 25 July 1492 (aged 59–60) Rome, Papal States: Previous post ^ Lauro Martines, April Blood: Florence and the Plot Against the Medici, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. Sixtus IV (sĭk`stəs), 1414–84, pope (1471–84), an Italian named Francesco della Rovere (b. near Savona); successor of Paul II.He was made general of his order, the Franciscans, in 1464 and became (1467) a cardinal. [3] That was a cornerstone of the privileges claimed for the Gallican Church and could never be shifted as long as Louis XI manoeuvred to replace King Ferdinand I of Naples with a French prince. A building for the Vatican Library was constructed. He was made cardinal in 1467 by Pope Paul II, whom he succeeded on Aug. 9, 1471. "Pope Sixtus IV." As Pope, he issued a papal bull allowing local bishops to give the bodies of executed criminals and unidentified corpses to physicians and artists for dissection. The Pope created 34 cardinals in eight consistories held during his reign, among them three nephews, one grandnephew and one other relative, thus continuing the practice of nepotism that he and his successors would engage in during this period. Originally known as the Cappella Magna ('Great Chapel'), the chapel takes its name from Pope Sixtus IV, who restored it between 1477 and 1480. Pope Sixtus IV died the following evening - 12 August. 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He was born in Celle Ligure, a town near Savona. Saint. Marcellino e Pietro, archbishop of Lisbon, Title of S. Crisogono, bishop of Recanati, 25 March 1471 (in pectore), 10 December1477, Title of S. Clemente, archbishop of Turin, Title of Ss. Title of Ss. [24]. During the reign of Pope Paul IV, Cardinal Medici was out of favor. He formally annulled the decrees of the Council of Constance in 1478. Sixtus's earlier threats to excommunicate all captains or pirates who enslaved Christians in the bull Regimini Gregis of 1476 could have been intended to emphasise the need to convert the natives of the Canary Islands and Guinea and establish a clear difference in status between those who had converted and those who resisted. As a civic patron in Rome, even the anti-papal chronicler Stefano Infessura agreed that Sixtus should be admired. [2] Because of an intense dispute between the Colonna and Orsini, the city of Rome was marked by far more civil unrest during the sede vacante than was to be expected historically. They again were influenced by Pope Sixtus IV, who was an enemy of the Medici. [23] The top of the casket is a lifelike depiction of the Pope lying in state. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. Louis was thus in conflict with the papacy, and Sixtus could not permit it. A marble tombstone marks the site. 124. Sixtus VI was elected on 28 August 2007 in a Papal conclave, celebrated his Papal Inauguration Mass on 1 September 2007, and took possession of his cathedral, the Archbasilica of St John Lateran, on 7 May 2005. At the death of Sixtus IV, the conclave of cardinals that met to elect his successor numbered thirty-two cardinals. He was made general of his order, the Franciscans, in 1464 and became (1467) a cardinal. [7] His nephew Pietro Riario also benefited from his nepotism. Morris, Roderick Conway. [2] Cardinal Borja led the first faction and Cardinal della Rovere, the second; these factions were roughly aligned with the Orsini and Colonna families, respectively. All of that was done to facilitate the integration of the Vatican Hill and Borgo with the heart of Old Rome. [22] This act of Sixtus IV had a profound long-term effect on the society and culture of Sweden, an effect which continues up to the present. Sixtus IV named seven new saints with the most notable being Bonaventure (1482); he also beatified one person: John Buoni (1483). [14] Although such accusations are easily dismissed as anti-Catholic propaganda,[10] they still prompted the noted historian of the Catholic Church, Ludwig von Pastor, to issue a firm rebuttal.[15]. He died a martyr. Pope Pius V … Internet Archive, Ebooks and Texts. [2], As a young man, Della Rovere joined the Franciscan Order, an unlikely choice for a political career, and his intellectual qualities were revealed while he was studying philosophy and theology at the University of Pavia. His pursuit of political goals and unremitting efforts to aggrandize his family were seen as excessive. Sixtus created an unusually large number of cardinals during his pontificate (23) who were drawn from the roster of the princely houses of Italy, France and Spain, thus ensuring that many of his policies continued after his death: Pope Sixtus is portrayed by Arthur Grosser in the short film Assassin's Creed: Lineage, a prequel to the video game Assassin's Creed II. Francesco Salviati, Archbishop of Pisa and a main organizer of the plot, was hanged on the walls of the Florentine Palazzo della Signoria. Nevertheless, Sixtus IV quarrelled over protocol and prerogatives of jurisdiction; he was unhappy with the excesses of the Inquisition and condemned the most flagrant abuses in 1482. The Pope grew weaker during the night of 11 August and he was unable to sleep. Neither a crusader nor A History of Uppsala University: 1477-1977. The archbishop of Uppsala was also named as the university's Chancellor, and was charged with maintaining the rights and privileges of the university and its members. Linus is named in the valediction of the Second Epistle to Timothy as being with Paul the Apostle in Rome near the end of Paul's life. Pope Linus (/ ˈ l aɪ n ə s / (); died c. AD 76) was the second bishop of Rome.His pontificate endured from c. AD 67 to his death. Almqvist & Wiksell International (1976), Perie, The Triple Crown, Spring 1935 p.26, Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, Butler, Richard Urban. Pietro became one of the richest men in Rome and was entrusted with Pope Sixtus' foreign policy. In his territorial aggrandizement of the Papal States, his niece's son Cardinal Raffaele Riario, for whom the Palazzo della Cancelleria was constructed, was suspected of colluding in the failed Pazzi conspiracy of 1478 to assassinate both Lorenzo de' Medici and his brother Giuliano and replace them in Florence with Sixtus IV's other nephew, Girolamo Riario. Pope Sixtus's tomb was destroyed in the Sack of Rome in 1527. His first thought was the prosecution of the war against the Turks , and legates were appointed for France , Spain , Germany , Hungary , and Poland , with the hope of enkindling enthusiasm in … The series implies that many of the more unsavoury parts of Sixtus' reign were really the work of his evil twin, who was out to gain power for himself. Pope Sixtus iv was born in July 21, 1414, near Abisola, and died in august 12, 1484. 14. This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 11:17. He was made general of his order, the Franciscans, in 1464 and became (1467) a cardinal. (sĭk`stəs), 1414–84, pope (1471–84), an Italian named Francesco della Rovere (b. near Savona); successor of Paul II. Pope Sixtus I (42 – 124, 125, 126 or 128), also spelled Xystus, a Roman of Greek descent, was the bishop of Rome from c. 115 to his death. A patron of the arts, he brought together the group of artists who ushered the Early Renaissance into Rome with the first masterpieces of the city's new artistic age. It was that access to corpses which allowed the anatomist Vesalius, along with Titian's pupil Jan Stephen van Calcar, to complete the revolutionary medical/anatomical text De humani corporis fabrica. Pope Sixtus IV (Latin: Xystus Quartus; 21 July 1414 - 12 August 1484), originally Francesco della Rovere, was an Italian priest of the Roman Catholic Church and the 213th Pope from 1471 until his death in 1484. 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